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Last reviewed September 2018

Minnesota Issues Resource Guides
Copper-Nickel Studies and Non-ferrous Mining

This guide is compiled by staff at the Minnesota Legislative Reference Library on a topic of interest to state legislators. It introduces the topic and points to sources for further research. It is not intended to be exhaustive.

History in Minnesota   Present-day Proposed Projects   Articles  Technical Reports and Other Documents   Additional Library Resources   Groups

History in Minnesota

The northeast region of Minnesota, often referred to as the "Iron Range", has a history of iron ore mining dating back to the 1880s. While the focus of mining to date has been iron deposits (known as "ferrous mining"), the ores also contain a variety of precious metals including copper and nickel. Copper-nickel mining (also known as "non-ferrous mining") in northern Minnesota is not a new issue for the state. Copper-nickel deposits have been known to exist in northern Minnesota since the 1800s, but it was not until 1948, when deposits were discovered near Duluth, that serious interest in mining these metals developed in the region. Over the next two decades, exploratory studies and drilling identified large deposits of potentially minable low-grade ore deposits.

In 1966 the federal government granted the International Nickel Company, Inc. (INCO) two preference rights mineral leases (MNES-01352 and MNES-01353) in Northern Minnesota, near the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCAW) and within the Rainy River watershed. These leases predate many of the environmental protection acts that would soon follow in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s.

In 1969 and 1971, the legislature made appropriations to the University of Minnesota for "ore and geological research," which included "experiments... in beneficiation of... non-ferrous deposits" (Laws of Minnesota 1969, chapter 1154; Laws of Minnesota 1971, chapter 966). The following year, Governor Wendell Anderson created an inter-agency task force chaired by the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to examine the possible ramifications of mining these deposits, which they reported in a 1973 report: Inter-Agency Task Force Report on Base Metal Mining Impacts. Later that year, the Minnesota Legislature appropriated $100,000 to the DNR, the State Planning Agency, and the University of Minnesota for continued study of the issue.

Then in 1974, at least two mining companies, AMAX Exploration, Inc. (AMAX) and INCO, (which had been granted preference rights mineral leases in 1966), started exploring the potential for copper-nickel mining in the state in earnest. In May, INCO asked the U.S. Forest Service to grant permits to mine on federally leased land near Ely, Minnesota in the Superior National Forest. They were proposing a large mine on the South Kawishiwi River just outside the BWCAW. A few months later, the Minneapolis Tribune reported on Governor Wendell Anderson's opposition to this plan because of the proposed project's proximity to the BWCAW.

Meanwhile, AMAX had proposed establishing a mine near Babbitt, Minnesota. In July 1974, the PCA held a hearing to discuss AMAX's intention to carry out environmental assessments for their copper-nickel projects, given concerns from the Environmental Quality Council (EQC), (the predecessor to the Environmental Quality Board), and others. After some back and forth between the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), EQC, and environmental groups, AMAX was permitted to establish a test site in 1976.

Given all this interest in copper-nickel mining exploration at the time, the EQC adopted a resolution in 1974 requiring an adequate regional study examining environmental, social, and economic impacts of non-ferrous mining before the acceptance of any environmental impact studies. This resolution led to the Minnesota Regional Copper-Nickel Study and effectively put a moratorium on copper-nickel mining in the region until the study's completion.

The Minnesota Regional Copper-Nickel Study, published in 1979, took five years to complete at a cost of $4.3 million, contained over 180 technical reports, and examined an area of 2,100 square miles. The goal was to study the possible region-wide environmental, social, and economic effects of copper-nickel mining and to collect baseline data from which to measure the effects of mining development.

The study revealed that copper-nickel mining in the region could meet environment standards if available technology was used wisely, but that production near existing iron facilities might exceed established environmental guidelines. The study also found that the ore deposits of the region contained an estimated $50 billion of minerals and that a copper-nickel industry in the region could create over 2,000 new jobs.

After the study's publication, the public was both excited by the economic possibilities of a new mining industry in northern Minnesota and concerned by its possible environmental effects. Eventually, falling copper prices and difficulties in the process of refining the low-grade ore of the region led AMAX and INCO to abandon their plans and a copper-nickel industry did not take root in northern Minnesota at that time.

The Legislative Reference Library's collection includes hundreds of reports that were issued in the late 1970s as part of the Copper-Nickel study. The full collection has been digitized and reports are linked in sections below.

Present-day Proposed Projects

In recent years, there has been renewed interest in copper-nickel mining in Northern Minnesota, particularly by the PolyMet Mining Corporation (PolyMet) and Twin Metals Minnesota (Twin Metals). These companies are pursuing mining in the same general locations INCO and AMAX explored 40 years go.

PolyMet Mining Corporation's proposed project

PolyMet's NorthMet site is in the same general region AMAX established at test shaft in 1976. This site is located between the cities of Hoyt Lakes and Babbitt on the Mesabi Iron Range, at and around the site of a long-abandoned taconite plant and ferrous mine. The site sits in the Lake Superior basin, meaning any drainage that might result from the project would flow toward the Great Lakes. The site is controlled through a long-term lease held by the PolyMet Mining Corporation (PolyMet). PolyMet submitted its initial project proposal to establish and operate a non-ferrous mine at the NorthMet site to the DNR in February 2005. If approved, this project would allow PolyMet to extract precious metals including copper and nickel from sulfide ores.

Reviews of possible environmental impacts of the PolyMet project have been in process for a number of years. A draft environmental impact statement (EIS) was released in 2009 but was deemed "Unsatisfactory - Inadequate or EU-3" by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a February 18, 2010 comment letter.

supplemental draft environmental impact statement (SDEIS) for the proposed PolyMet mining project was released on December 6, 2013. The supplemental DEIS is the culmination of four years of research and analysis of the proposed non-ferrous mine. The co-lead agencies, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Forest Service, considered public comments received and whether additional analysis was needed. When the 90-day comment period on the SDEIS ended March 13, 2014, the EPA issued a comment letter giving the SDEIS an EC-2 rating, "Environmental Concerns - Insufficient Information." A final EIS was issued in June 2015.

On March 3, 2016, the Minnesota DNR issued a Record of Decision that determined that the environmental impact statement for PolyMet's proposed NorthMet project was adequate. This decision marked the end of the state EIS process under the Minnesota Environmental Policy Act and cleared the way for permit applications. On November 3, 2016, PolyMet submitted an application to the Minnesota DNR for a permit to mine for its NorthMet Project. In January 2018, the DNR granted PolyMet a draft permit to mine.

On November 1, 2018, the Minnesota DNR announced that it "issued permits for [PolyMet’s] proposed NorthMet mining project in northeast Minnesota." This completes the DNR's role in considering the project's major permits. Further required permits from the MPCA, the Army Corps of Engineers, and other local entities are still pending. Permit documents are posted on the DNR's permitting website, and other information is available on the DNR and MPCA's PolyMet project website.

Twin Metals Minnesota's proposed project

Another company is also considering mining opportunities in northeastern Minnesota. Twin Metals Minnesota, a subsidiary of Chilean company Antofagasta, has proposed mining at a site near the BWCAW, in the same general region INCO explored in the 1970s. This proposed project is much larger than PolyMet's and is located on mostly undeveloped and underexplored land. Hopes are high that the project will provide positive economic impacts for the region; at the same time, concerns remain about potential negative environmental impacts. The site sits in the Rainy River basin, meaning any drainage that might result from this project would flow toward the BWCAW and Quetico Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada.

The leases originally granted to INCO in 1966 were renewed in 1989 and 2004. When Twin Metals Minnesota sought a lease renewal from the federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in 2012, a lengthy decision-making process on whether those leases should be renewed began. In December 2016, the federal government under the Obama administration decided not to renew the leases. Letters between the Department of the Interior, the BLM, the U.S. Forest Service, and the Chief Operating Officer of Twin Metals Minnesota detail that decision. At the same time, the Obama administration withdrew 234,000 acres of Superior National Forest, located in the Rainy River watershed, from eligibility for mineral leases for two years so an intensive environmental study on potential threats posed by mining could be completed. The findings from this process could have led to a 20-year ban on mining near the BWCAW. 

In late 2017, the United States Department of the Interior’s Office of the Solicitor under the Trump administration issued a new legal opinion that reversed the previous one. The effect of this reversal is detailed in a May 2018 letter from the BLM: the leases that had been granted in 2004 were reinstated and those leases "will remain in effect until such a time as the BLM acts on the application for a third lease renewal [which was submitted in 2012]."

In September 2018, the withdrawal of lands from mineral leasing eligibility put in place in December 2016 was lifted; the U.S. Agriculture Secretary, who oversees the Forest Service, also suspended the environmental review that had begun in 2016, indicating in a press release that after "an extensive review of environmental information related to the proposed mineral activities," no "new scientific information" was revealed.

Articles about Copper-Nickel Mining in Northern Minnesota (1975-2018)

(articles in reverse chronological order)

McKinney, Matt and Josephine Marcotty. "On the Iron Range, New Hopes and New Anxieties: Permit Approvals for PolyMet Open a New Chapter in an Old Struggle." Star Tribune, November 11, 2018.

Kraker, Dan. "DNR Backs PolyMet Mine Permits." Minnesota Public Radio, November 1, 2018.

Kraker, Dan. "Mining, Environmental Concerns put Boundary Waters on the Ballot -- and the Airwaves." Minnesota Public Radio, October 31, 2018.

Marcotty, Josephine. "Defeat for Minnesota Wilderness Protection Means Back to Business for Mining." Star Tribune, September 10, 2018.

Kraker, Dan. "Four Things that Need to Happen Before PolyMet Mine's Future Can be Written." Minnesota Public Radio, August 28, 2018.

Kraker, Dan. "Groups Sue Feds Over Mineral Leases Near the Boundary Waters." Minnesota Public Radio, June 21, 2018.

Burnes, Jerry. "Antofagasta meets Minnesota: Parent company of Twin Metals, CEO discuss project with local stakeholders." Mesabi Daily News, February 28, 2018.

Helmsberger, Marshall. "Twin Metals can Reapply for Mineral Leases: Trump's Interior Department Reverses Earlier Rulings by Reagan and Obama." The Timberjay, December 22, 2017. 

Myers, John. "Long-quiet copper project near Babbitt stirs." Duluth News Tribune, November 19, 2017.

Coolican, J. Patrick. "Gov. Mark Dayton Comes Out in Favor of PolyMet Copper-Nickel Mining Project." Star Tribune, October 24, 2017.

Kraker, Dan. "Environmental Lawsuits Pile Up as PolyMet Mine Crawls Forward." Minnesota Public Radio, March 31, 2017.

Kraker, Dan. "Debate Over Copper Mining Near Boundary Waters Heats Up Again." Minnesota Public Radio, February 2, 2017. 

Helmsberger, Marshall. "Twin Metals Dealt a Major Setback: Agencies Decide not to Renew Mineral Leases for Mine Project." The Timberjay, December 22, 2016.

Bjorhus, Jennifer. "Feds Slam Brakes on Copper-Nickel Mine Near Boundary Waters: Feds say Twin Metals Plan Poses too Big a Risk to BWCA." Star Tribune, December 15, 2016. 

Henry, Devin. "Will Copper/Nickel Mining be Minnesota's Bakken Field? Not So Fast." MinnPost, July 10, 2014.

Meador, Ron. "Economists Say Rosy Mining Forecasts Should Count Costs and Lost Jobs, Too." MinnPost, February 21, 2014.

Meador, Ron. "Meet Twin Metals, and the Biggest North-Woods Mine You've Never Heard Of." MinnPost, February 13, 2014.

Marcotty, Josephine. "Iron Range Mine Could Pollute Water For Up to 500 Years: State's First Copper-Nickel Mine Would Require Billions of Dollars in Long-Term Cleanup, Regulators Say." Star Tribune, October 7, 2013.

Kraker, Dan. "Iron Range's Copper-Nickel Mining Poses Opportunity and Possible Threat." Minnesota Public Radio, March 26, 2013.

Myers, John. "Digging Into the Promise of Copper." Minnesota Conservation Volunteer, July/August 2012.

Westgard, Rolf. "With Nonferrous-Metal Demand Rising, Pressures for Production from Minnesota's Copper Range Will be Difficult to Resist." MinnPost, July 11, 2011.

Selected newspaper clippings on non-ferrous mining in Minnesota, 1980.

Selected newspaper clippings on non-ferrous mining in Minnesota, 1979.

Anderson, Lewis Clarke. "The Copper Nickel Controvery, or, Can We Mine Without a Mess?." The Minnesota Volunteer, November-December, 1975.

Environmental Impact Statement Documents for PolyMet's NorthMet Mining Project (2009-2016)

(reports in reverse chronological order)

Record of Decision In the Matter of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the PolyMet Mining, Inc., NorthMet Mining Project and Land Exchange. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, March 2016. (Report includes Exhibit A - RGU Consideration of Final EIS Comments.)

NorthMet Mining Project and Land Exchange: Final Environmental Impact Statement. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Forest Service, November 2015.

NorthMet Mining Project and Land Exchange: Preliminary Final Environmental Impact Statement. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Forest Service, June 2015.

NorthMet Mining Project and Land Exchange: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Forest Service, November 2013.

NorthMet Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Forest Service, October 2009.

Inter-Agency Task Force (1972-1973)

Inter-Agency Task Force Report on Base Metal Mining Impacts. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1973

Study of Base Metal Mining and Processing in Minnesota. (Preliminary Draft) Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1972

Minnesota Regional Copper-Nickel Study (1976-1979)

The Minnesota Regional Copper-Nickel Study. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1976-79. Includes an executive summary.

Index to the Regional Copper-Nickel Study. Minneapolis: Environmental Conservation Library, Minneapolis Public Library and Information Center, 1980.

Technical Reports from the Late 1970s Study (1977-1980)

1978 DNR/AMAX Field Leaching and Reclamation Program: Progress Report on the Leaching Study. Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Minerals, 1979. (CN-040)

Acid Precipitation, Its Formation, Deposition and Effects on Lake Water Chemistry: a Review of the Literature. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-060)

Acute Toxicity of Sodium Isopropylxanthate to the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales Promelas) and (Daphnia Pulicaria). Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-003)

Air Quality Program Operations Manual. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, 1976. (CN-139)

Air Quality Standards and Regulations that Apply to Model Cu-Ni Smelter Facility in NE Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-123)

Alternative Models for Analyzing the Ely Base Economy: Ely Market Area Study Report #1. UMD Bureau of Business and Economic Research, 1977. (CN-092)

Ambient Concentrations of Mineral Fibers in Air and Water in Northeast Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-006)

Analysis of Potential Impacts on Human Health from Copper-Nickel Development: Step 1, General Prioritization. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-007)

Aquatic Biology Operations Manuals. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-005)

Aquatic Macrophytes in Streams. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-080)

Aquatic Toxicology Progress Report. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-093)

Aquatic Toxicology Project Operations Manual. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-094)

Aquatic Toxicology Study. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-095)

Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus Leucocephalus). Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-062)

The Behavior of Minor and Trace Elements in a Smelter Treating Copper/Nickel Concentrates from the Minnesota Duluth Gabbro Complex. Radian Corp., 1978. (CN-031)

Benthic Invertebrates of Lakes. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-081)

Biological Effects of Physical Impacts to Stream Ecosystems. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-082)

Biological Monitoring of Aquatic Ecosystems. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-022)

Biological Sciences. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1976. (CN-122)

Bird Migration in the Duluth Area: Impact Assessment from Copper-Nickel Mining. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-115)

Black Bear (Ursus Americanus). Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-063)

Characteristics and Origins of Coarse Particles in the Air of Northeastern Minnesota. Particle Technology Laboratory, University of Minnesota, 1979. (CN-171)

Characterization of Hydrous Minerals in the Duluth Complex--Copper-Nickel Study Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-167)

The Climate of the Copper-Nickel Study Region of Northeastern Minnesota: Part "A", the Long-Term Climatological Record. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-162)

The Climate of the Copper-Nickel Study Region of Northeastern Minnesota: Weather During the Project 1976-1978 and Findings Derived from Ancillary Atudies. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-163)

Column Leaching of Trace Metals from Duluth Gabbro Material. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-026)

Community Profiles of Eight East Iron Range Communities. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-037)

A Computer Model for the Prediction of Mining Noise Impacts in Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-144)

Concentrations of Mineral Fibers in Process Samples from Northeast Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-150)

Copper-Nickel Mining, Smelting and Refining as an Environmental Hazard to Human Health: a Review of Epidemiologic Literature and Study Recommendations. Minnesota Environmental Quality Council, 1976. (CN-136)

Copper-Nickel Mining, Smelting and Refining as an Environmental Hazard to Human Health: a Review of Epidemiology Literature and Study Recommendations on Asbestos. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-137)

Copper-Nickel Mining, Smelting and Refining as an Environmental Hazard to Human Health: a Review of Epidemiologic Literature and Study Recommendations on Sulfur Dioxide and Particulates. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-179)

Copper-Nickel Mining: Visual Analysis and Design Criteria, a Study. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-019)

Copper-Nickel Study Region Point Source Emissions Inventory for Particulate and Sulfur Dioxide Emissions. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-124)

Demographics and Vital Statistics. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-008)

Details of the Open pit Mine Model. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-110)

Details of the Underground Mine Models. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-111)

Distribution of Deer Hunters on the MINESITE Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-036)

An Economic Analysis of the Ely Base Economy: Ely Market Area Study Report #2. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-092)

Economic Effects of Copper-Nickel Development in Northeast Minnesota. Dept. of Agriculture and Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, Institute of Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics, 1979. (CN-098)

Economic Survey Methodology. Minnesota, 1978. (CN-039)

Effect of Heavy Metals and Sulphur Dioxide on Phytoplankton: Final Report. Dept. of Biology and Lake Superior Basin Studies Center, University of Minnesota, Duluth, 1978. (CN-053)

The Effects of Heavy Metals on the Germination and Radicle Growth of Some Forest Plants of Northern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-109)

The Effects of Noise on Wildlife. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-116)

The Effects of Smelter Emissions on Forest Tree Productivity. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-027)

Energy Coefficients and Fuel Substitution Possibilities in the Copper Nickel Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Council, 1978. (CN-101)

Environmental Leaching of Duluth Gabbro Under Laboratory and Field Conditions: Oxidative Dissolution of Metal Sulfide and Silicate Minerals. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1980. (CN-042)

The Environmental Requirements and Pollution Tolerance of Aquatic Insects of the Regional Copper-Nickel Study Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-018)

An Epidemiologic Study of Select Causes of Death in Counties of the United States Exposed to Copper-Nickel Mining/Smelting in Comparison with Counties not Exposed, with Their Respective States, and with the United States as a Whole. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-142)

Erie Mining Project Biological Sampling. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-083)

Estimates of Sulfate Deposition Using a Stochastic Model for Precipitation. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-024)

Estimation of Particle Size Distribution: Run-of-Mine Waste Rock and Primary Crusher Products. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-089)

Field Studies: Leaching, Metal Transport and Metal Pathways: Progress Report. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-041)

Fiscal Data For Selected Cities in Minnesota's Iron Range, 1974-1976. Minnesota, 1977. (CN-106)

Fish Tissue Analysis. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-091)

Forest Productivity in the Superior National Forest Outside of the BWCA. [Minnesota Environmental Quality Board?], 1978. (CN-028)

Format for Gathering Data: Copper/Nickel Report #3. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-092)

Geochemical Budget for Filson Creek Watershed. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-140)

Geology of the Regional Copper-Nickel Study Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-034)

Habitat Descriptions. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-056)

Health Care Facilities in Northeast Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-009)

Health Manpower in Northeast Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-010)

Heavy Metal Accumulation in Aquatic Organisms. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-057)

Historic, Natural and Scientific Areas in the Regional Copper-Nickel Study Area. [Minnesota Environmental Quality Board?], 1976. (CN-165)

Human Health Literature Reviews. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-011)

Hydrologic Investigations of Selected Watersheds in the Copper-Nickel Region of Northeastern Minnesota. (External Memorandum No. 155) University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory, February 1978. (CN-135)

Hydrologic Investigations of Selected Watersheds in the Copper-Nickel Region of Northeastern Minnesota. (External Memorandum No. 159) University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory, August 1978. (CN-135)

Hydrology and Ground-Water Quality of the Copper-Nickel Study Region, Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-141)

Hydrology of Stockpiles of Sulfide Bearing Gabbro in Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Minerals, 1980. (CN-058)

Identification of Mosses. [Minnesota Environmental Quality Board?], 197-?. (CN-076)

Impact of Air Pollutants on Terrestrial Vegetation (Sulfur Dioxide, Fluorides and Metals): a Literature Survey. Minnesota Environmental Quality Council, 1976. (CN-086)

Impact of Copper-Nickel Development in Northern Minnesota on Terrestrial Vegetation: 1976-1977 Final Report. Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, 1977. (CN-087)

Impact of Copper-Nickel Mining on Streamflow of the Kawishiwi and Upper St. Louis Rivers, Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-160)

Impacts of Copper-Nickel Mining and Processing on the Hydrology of the Copper-Nickel Study Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-061)

Impacts of Fugitive Dust Emissions from a Model Copper-Nickel Mine and Mill. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-012)

Interactions Between Air Pollutants and Plant Diseases Caused by Biotic Agents. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-174)

Kinetics and Mechanisms of the Oxidative-Dissolution of Metal Sulfide Minerals Found in Duluth-Gabbro Ore. Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1979. (CN-059)

Lake Fisheries Report. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-138)

Lake Phytoplankton. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-054)

Lake Zooplankton. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-118)

Leaf Decomposition. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-169)

Lichens as Air Pollution Indicators. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-029)

Mechanism and Control of Metal Sulfide in Gabbro Mining-Related Solids. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-043)

Metal Composition and Size Distribution of Atmospheric Particulate Matter in Remote Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-044)

Metal Sulfide Leaching Potential in the Duluth Gabbro Complex: a Literature Survey. Environmental Engineering Group and Mineral Resources Research Center, Dept. of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1976. (CN-045)

Metallurgical Technology, Pollution and Pollution Control in the Nonferrous Metals Industry. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-120)

Metallurgical Technology, Smelter-Refinery Model. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-121)

Metallurgy Progress Report 2. Regional Cu-Ni Study, Minnesota Environmental Quality Counsel, 1977. (CN-119)

Meteorological Considerations Affecting Dispersion of Atmospheric Constituents in the Duluth Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-164)

Mineral Processing Studies--Dust Generation in Crushing and Handling: Final Report to Minnesota Environmental Quality Board Regional Copper-Nickel Study. Mineral Resources Research Center, University of Minnesota, 1978. (CN-078)

Mineral Processing Studies - Flotation Tests: Final Report to Minnesota Environmental Quality Board Copper Nickel Study. Mineral Resources Research Center, University of Minnesota, 1978. (CN-079)

Mineral Processing Studies, Hydrometallurgical Processing of Concentrates. University of Minnesota, Mineral Resources Research Center, 1978. (CN-130)

Mineral Resources of a Portion of the Duluth Complex and Adjacent Rocks in St. Louis and Lake Counties, Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Minerals, Minerals Exploration Section, 1977. (CN-097)

Mining Land Use: Level I Report. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-103)

Minnesota Copper-Nickel Resource Processing Model. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-159)

Modeling a Regional Economy: an Introduction to SIMLAB II. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-105)

Modeling Strategies for Projecting Vegetation Trends in an Area of Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-145)

Moose (Alces Alces). Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-064)

Morbidity in Mortheast Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-013)

Mortality Experience of Northeast Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-014)

A Noise Monitoring Study for the Regional Copper Nickel Study. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, 1978. (CN-156)

Non-Game Bird Census. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-107)

Operating Manual for the Residential Settlement Model. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-021)

Operations Manual, Terrestrial Studies. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-112)

Ore Utilization by Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans. [Minnesota Environmental Quality Board?], 1978. (CN-054)

Origins of Coarse Particles Near and on the Iron Range of Minnesota: a Preliminary Report. Particle Technology Laboratory, University of Minnesota, 1978. (CN-172)

Osprey (Pandion Haliaetus). Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-065)

Outdoor Recreation in the Regional Copper-Nickel Study Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-166)

Physiography and Superficial Geology of the Copper-Nickel Study Region, Northeastern Minnesota. U.S. Geological Survey, 1978. (CN-108)

Phytotoxicology Monitoring Proposal. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-030)

Plant Collections of the Regional Copper-Nickel Study.Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-131)

Plant Diseases Affecting Forest Trees in Northeastern Minnesota's Regional Copper-Nickel Study Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-175)

Plant Pathology Monitoring. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-173)

Population Effects of Copper-Nickel Development in Northeast Minnesota. Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, Institute of Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics, 1979. (CN-100)

Precipitation Chemistry and Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements in Northeastern Minnesota. Environmental Engineering Program, Dept. of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1978. (CN-046)

Predicting Forest Cover Type Changes for a Region of Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-146)

Preliminary Guidelines for Surveillance of Health Effects from Copper-Nickel Mining and Smelting. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-143)

Preliminary Report, Mining and Metallurgical Technology, Regional Cu-Ni Study, Minnesota EQC. Minnesota Environmental Quality Council, 1976. (CN-158)

A Preliminary Report of Exploration Models. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-127)

Problems and Approaches in the Revegetation of Mine Wastes. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-001)

Proposal for the Terrestrial Biology Section of the Regional Environmental Impact Study: Summer--1976. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1976. (CN-066)

Proposed Sites to be Preserved that are Located on the Copper-Nickel Mine Site Area in the Superior National Forest. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1976. (CN-067)

Quality Assurance in the Surface Water and Leaching and Metal Pathways Program of the Regional Copper-Nickel Study. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-050)

Raptors. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-068)

Rare Plants. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-132)

A Reassessment of Kotar's Data Analysis. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-002)

Regional Analysis of Hydrologic Information for the Copper-Nickel Region, Northeastern Minnesota: Final Report. Dept. of Forest Resources, College of Forestry, University of Minnesota, 1978. (CN-025)

A Regional Approach to Analyzing the Atmospheric Impacts of Copper-Nickel Smelting in Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1980. (CN-125)

A Regional Characterization of Particulates in Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-048)

Regional Characterization of the Copper-Nickel Water Quality Research Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-102)

Removal of Trace Metals from Aqueous Systems by Absorption on Peat Bog Material. Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1978. (CN-129)

Report to State of Minnesota Environmental Quality Board on Copper-Nickel Project Engineering Aspects of Tailing Disposal. Golder Associates. Vancouver, B.C., 1978. (CN-055)

Results of a Survey of Local Businesses Regarding the Economic Impact of Tourism in Ely, Minnesota. Minnesota, 1978. (CN-047)

Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa Umbellus). Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-069)

Seasonal Variations in the Vegetation. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-133)

Short Range Dispersion of Sulfur Dioxide from a Smelter Complex. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-049)

Small Mammal Census. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1976. (CN-147)

Small Mammals of the Regional Copper-Nickel Study Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-020)

Smoking in Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-015)

Snowshoe Hare (Lepus Americanus). Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-070)

Soil Decomposition Studies. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-113)

Soils of the Study Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-114)

Song Birds of the Study Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-117)

Spawning Behavior, Food Habits and Movements of Fishes: a Literature Review. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-085)

Spruce Grouse (Canachites Canadesis). Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-071)

Spruce Road Bulk Sample Site Monitoring Results. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-148)

Standards and Effects on Human Health of Environmental Pollutants. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-016)

Statistical Modeling of TSP Data. [Minnesota Environmental Quality Board?], 1978. (CN-051)

Status of the Bald Eagle and Osprey on the Minesite Area and in the Superior National Forest. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1976. (CN-149)

Stream Benthic Invertebrates. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-088)

Stream Fish. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-170)

Stream Order Classification. [Minnesota Environmental Quality Board?], 197-?. (CN-152)

Stream Periphyton. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-084)

The Study of Impacts from People and Money Related to Copper-Nickel Development. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-157)

Sulfur Dioxide Conversion Literature Survey. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-126)

Surface and Subsurface Ownership in the Regional Copper-Nickel Study Area: Level I Report. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-104)

Survey of Four Metals. New York, N.Y.: Commodities Research Unit, 1977. (CN-033)

Survey of Lichens on the Minesite Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-168)

Taconite Employee Commuting: an Examination of Employment Data Provided by Taconite Mining Companies of the Mesabi Iron Range. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1977. (CN-038)

Tailings Basin Design. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-128)

Tailings Basin Water Quality Based on Level II Water Budget Using a Conservative Mass Balance Calculation. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-090)

Task 2 Report: Documentation of Work Done in Support of the Regional Copper/Nickel Study. Radian Corp., 1978. (CN-032)

The Toxicity of Heavy Metals, Beneficiation Reagents and Hydrogen Ion to Aquatic Organisms. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-096)

Toxicity of Xanthates to Freshwater Fish and Invertebrates. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-004)

User's Guide to CNICK. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-151)

Users' Guide to the Minnesota Regional Development Simulation Laboratory. University of Minnesota, Institute of Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics, 1979. (CN-099)

The Utilization of Copper-Nickel Tailing: a Literature Survey. University of Minnesota, Mineral Resources Research Center, 1977. (CN-155)

Vegetation of a Portion of the Regional Copper-Nickel Study Area, Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1980. (CN-134)

Water Quality Characterization of the Copper-Nickel Water Quality Research Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1979. (CN-153)

Water Quality of the Dunka River: the Characterization of a Watershed Affected by Mining. D. Benzie, 1977. (CN-023)

Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal in Northeast Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-017)

Waterfowl Characterization Report. [Minnesota Environmental Quality Boar?], 1977. (CN-072)

Waterfowl of the Regional Copper-Nickel Study Area. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-073)

Waterfowl: Water Areas Used by Ducks and Geese. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1976. (CN-161)

White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus). Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-074)

Winter Densities and Distribution of Deer and Moose in Northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-052)

Wolf (Canis Lupus). Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, 1978. (CN-075)

Miscellaneous Reports 

Stock, James. U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Environmental Assessment (EA) on Proposed 20-year Mineral Leasing Withdrawal in Superior National Forest. Harvard University, Department of Economics, August 6, 2018.

Orr, Isaac, Debra Struhsacker, & John Phelan. Unearthing Prosperity: How Environmentally Responsible Mining Will Boost Minnesota’s Economy. Center for the American Experiment, August 2018.

The Economic Impact of Ferrous and Non-ferrous Mining on the State of Minnesota and on the Arrowhead Region and Douglas County, WI. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Labovitz School of Business and Economics, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2012.

The Economic Impact of Ferrous and Non-ferrous Mining on the State of Minnesota and on the Arrowhead Region and Douglas County, WI. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Labovitz School of Business and Economics, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2009.

Power, Thomas Michael. The Economic Role of Metal Mining in Minnesota: Past, Present, and Future. Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy and the Sierra Club, 2007.

Action plan for Assessment of INCO Copper Nickel Mining Proposal. Superior National Forest, Eastern Region, Forest Service, United States Dept. of Agriculture, [1974?]

Additional Library Resources

For additional articles, check the following Inside Issues heading:
Mining Industries--Minerals mining

For additional reports at the Legislative Reference Library, use this Library catalog search:
Copper Nickel

Groups Involved with this Issue