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United States Constitutional Amendments:
Minnesota’s Legislative History

The process for amending the U.S. Constitution is established by Article V:

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

The text of Article V provides two direct roles for a state legislature in the amendment process:

(1) At the discretion of Congress, a state legislature may be the body charged with ratifying a proposed amendment.

(2) A state legislature, on its own initiative, may apply to Congress for a convention at which amendments may be proposed.

Through 2015, 33 proposed amendments have been submitted to the states by Congress; 27 of these proposed amendments have been fully ratified by three-fourths of states. Minnesota has ratified 18 of these proposed amendments and has submitted three applications to Congress for a constitutional convention.

All proposed amendments have been initiated by Congress, and nearly all of them have required ratification through the vote of each state’s legislature. Only one amendment (the 21st, repealing prohibition) was ratified through a process of state conventions, rather than by state legislatures.

These tables are taken from United States Constitutional Amendments: Minnesota's Legislative History, a 2016 Minnesota House Research publication by Matt Gehring and augmented by additional information compiled by Mr. Gehring.

Further information can be found in another House Research publication, United States Constitutional Amendment Process: Legal Principles for State Legislators, as well as the U.S. Congress publication, Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation.

Minnesota’s Ratification of Proposed Amendments

Further details about Minnesota’s Ratification of Proposed Amendments

Amendment Legislative Session Law/File Number Final Vote in House Final Vote in Senate Action by Governor
1-12th --- --- --- --- The 1st through 12th amendment ratifications pre-date Minnesota's statehood.
13th: Abolition of Slavery 7th Leg. (1865) Concurrent Resolution (H.F. 137) Journal of the House, pg. 163 Journal of the Senate, pg. 176 (February 23, 1865) ---
14th: Citizenship, Equal Protection, and Due Process Rights 9th Leg. (1867) Concurrent Resolution (not numbered) Journal of the House, pg. 33 (Jan. 17, 1867) Journal of the Senate, pg. 23 (Jan. 17, 1867) Journal of the House, pg. 95 (Feb. 4, 1867)
15th: Voting Rights Based on Race 12th Leg. (1870) Laws 1870, Joint Res. No. 1 (S.F. 2) Journal of the House, pg. 29 (Jan. 13, 1870) Journal of the Senate, pg. 21 (Jan. 12, 1870) Journal of the Senate, pg. 40 (Jan. 19, 1870)
16th: Income Tax Extra Session (1912) Laws 1912 (Extra Session) Joint Res. No. 2 (H.F. 12) Journal of the House, pg. 24 (June 6, 1912) Journal of the Senate, pg. 53 (June 11, 1912) Journal of the House, pg. 75 (June 14, 1912)
17th: Direct Election of Senators Extra Session (1912) Laws 1912 (Extra Session) Joint Res. No. 1 (H.F. 11) Journal of the House, pg. 23 (June 6, 1912) Journal of the Senate, pg. 48 (June 10, 1912) Journal of the House, pg. 75 (June 14, 1912)
18th: Prohibition 41st Leg. (1919) Laws 1919, Res. No. 1 (S.F. 77) Journal of the House, pg. 112 (Jan. 17, 1919) Journal of the Senate, pg. 10 (Jan. 16, 1919) Journal of the Senate, pg. 2 (Jan. 23, 1919)
19th: Women's Suffrage Extra Session (1919) Laws 1919 (Extra Session) Joint Res. No. 1 (H.F. 1) Journal of the House, pg. 11 (September 8, 1919) Journal of the Senate, pg. 13 (September 8, 1919) Journal of the House, pg. 63 (September 11, 1919)
20th: Terms of Office; Presidential Succession 48th Leg. (1933) Laws 1933, Joint Res. No. 5 (S.F. 94) Journal of the House, 48th Leg. (1933), pg. 101 (Jan. 12, 1933) Journal of the Senate, 48th Leg. (1933), pg. 69 (Jan. 12, 1933) Journal of the Senate, 48th Leg. (1933), pg. 102 (Jan. 16, 1933)
21st: Repeal of Prohibition 48th Leg. (1933) Laws 1933, chapter 214 (S.F. 1027) (Journal of the Proceedings) --- --- ---
22nd: Presidential Term Limits 57th Leg. (1951) Laws 1951 Joint Res. No. 4 (S.F. 15) Journal of the House, pg. 651 (Feb. 27, 1951) Journal of the Senate, pg. 345 (Feb. 13, 1951) Journal of the Senate, pg. 615 (Mar. 2, 1951)
23rd: D.C. Electoral Rights 62nd Leg. (1961) Laws 1961, Res. No. 1 (S.F. 5) Journal of the House, pg. 219 (Jan. 31, 1961) Journal of the Senate, pg. 57 (Jan. 17, 1961) Journal of the Senate, pg. 236 (Feb. 6, 1961)
24th: Poll Taxes Prohibited 63rd Leg. (1963) Laws 1963, Res. No. 3 (H.F. 66) Journal of the House, pg. 379 (Feb. 19, 1963) Journal of the Senate, pg. 487 (Feb. 27, 1963) Journal of the House, pg. 610 (Mar. 6, 1963)
25th: Presidential Succession 65th Leg (1967) Laws 1967, Res. No. 1 (H.F. 21) Journal of the House, pg. 117 (Jan. 17, 1967) Journal of the Senate, pg. 417 (Feb. 10, 1967) Journal of the House, pg. 337 (Feb. 13, 1967)
26th: Voting Rights at Age 18 67th Leg. (1971) Laws 1971, Res. No. 3 (S.F. 1322) Journal of the House, pg. 899 (March 23, 1971) Journal of the Senate, pg. 754 (Mar. 23, 1971) Journal of the Senate, pg. 777 (Mar. 23, 1971)
27th: Congressional Salaries 76th Leg. (1989) Laws 1989, Res. No. 6 (H.F. 762) Journal of the House, pg. 7709 (May 22, 1989) Journal of the Senate, pg. 3888 (May 19, 1989) Journal of the House, pg. 9128 (May 26, 1989)
Proposed Amendments not Ratified by Three Fourths of the States
Congressional Apportionment (proposed) --- --- --- --- This proposed amendment ratification pre-dates Minnesota's statehood.
Titles of Nobility (proposed) --- --- --- --- This proposed amendment ratification pre-dates Minnesota's statehood.
Prohibiting Elimination of Slavery (proposed) --- --- --- --- There are no surviving records to indicate that the Minnesota Legislature has ever considered ratification of this amendment.
Child Labor (proposed) Extra Session (1933) Laws 1933 (Extra Session), Res. No. 2. (H.F. 27) 1 Journal of the House, pg. 76 (Dec. 13, 1933) Journal of the Senate, pg. 89 (Dec. 14, 1933) Journal of the House, pg. 91 (Dec. 15, 1933)
Equal Rights (proposed) 68th Leg. (1973) Laws 1973, Res. No. 1 (H.F. 3) Journal of the House, pg. 179 (Jan. 22, 1973) Journal of the Senate, pg. 255 (Feb. 8, 1973) Journal of the House, pg. 318 (Feb. 12, 1973)
District of Columbia Representation (proposed) 71st Leg. (1979) Laws 1979, Res. No. 1 (H.F. 3) Journal of the House, pg. 397 (Mar. 8, 1979) Journal of the Senate, pg. 477 (Mar. 19, 1979) Journal of the House, pg. 622 (Mar. 28, 1979)
1 Joint Resolution Rejecting Proposed Child Labor Amendment: Minnesota Laws 1925, Resolution No. 13.

Minnesota’s Applications for an Article V Convention

Further details about Minnesota’s Applications for an Article V Convention

Article V Application Legislative Session Law/File Number Final Vote, House Final Vote, Senate Action by Governor
Direct Election of Senators 32nd Leg. (1901) Laws 1901, Chapter 406 (S.F. 904) Journal of the House, pg. 138 (Feb. 2, 1901) Journal of the Senate, pg. 108 (Jan. 31, 1901) Journal of the Senate, pg. 177 (Feb. 9, 1901)
Prohibition of Polygamy 36th Leg. (1909) Laws 1909, Joint Res. No. 17 (S.F. 475) Journal of the House, pg. 1320 (Apr. 2, 1909) Journal of the Senate, pg. 803 (Mar. 24, 1909) Journal of the Senate, pg. 1055 (Apr. 8, 1909)
State Legislative Apportionment 64th Leg. (1965) Laws 1965, Res. No. 5 (H.F. 522) Journal of the House, pg. 1405 (May 6, 1965) Journal of the Senate, pg. 1745 (May 5, 1965) Journal of the House, pg. 2270 (May 13, 1965)

Minnesota’s Requests that Congress Propose an Amendment

Further details about Minnesota’s Requests that Congress Propose an Amendment

Resolution Legislative Session Law/File Number Final Vote, House Final Vote, Senate Action by Governor
Direct Election of Senators 28th Leg. (1893) Laws 1893, Res. No. 8 (H.F. 404) Journal of the House, pg. 203 (Feb. 8, 1893) Journal of the Senate, pg. 311 (Feb. 28, 1893) Journal of the House, pg. 419 (Mar. 4, 1893)
Direct Election of Senators 29th Leg. (1895) Laws 1895, Res. No. 4 (H.F. 150) Journal of the House, pg. 88 (Jan. 29, 1895) Journal of the Senate, pg. 73 (Jan. 30, 1895) Journal of the House, pg. 126 (Feb. 5, 1895)
Regulation of Trusts and Monopolies 32nd Leg. (1901) Laws 1901, Chapter 400 (H.F. 77) Journal of the House, pg. 145 (Feb. 4, 1901) Journal of the Senate, pg. 225 (Feb. 16, 1901) Journal of the House, pg. 292 (Feb. 25, 1901)
Women's Suffrage 41st Leg. (1919) Laws 1919, Res. No. 2 (H.F. 61) Journal of the House, pg. 141 (Jan. 22, 1919) Journal of the Senate, pg. 10 (Jan. 23, 1919) Journal of the House, pg. 191 (Jan. 24, 1919)
Tax-Exempt Securities 48th Leg. (1933) Laws 1933 Res. No. 24 (H.F. 1921) Journal of the House, pg. 1608 (Apr. 8, 1933) Journal of the Senate, pg. 1619 (Apr. 18, 1933) N/A2
Tax-Exempt Securities 51st Leg. (1939) Laws 1939, Res. No. 12 (S.F. 176) Journal of the House, pg. 633 (Mar. 6, 1939) Journal of the Senate, pg. 235 (Feb. 8, 1939) Journal of the Senate, pg. 530 (Mar. 9, 1939)
Equal Rights Amendment 56th Leg. (1949) Laws 1949, Res. No. 18 (H.F. 905) Journal of the House, pg. 2224 (Apr. 18, 1949) Journal of the Senate, pg. 2322 (Apr. 20, 1949) Journal of the House, pg. 2663 (Apr. 25, 1949)
Rights at Conception 68th Leg. (1973) Laws 1973, Res. No. 5 (H.F. 479) Journal of the House, pg. 1387 (Apr. 13, 1973) Journal of the Senate, pg. 1829 (Apr. 28, 1973) Journal of the House, pg. 3152 (May 8, 1973)
Desecration of American Flag 78th Leg. (1994) Laws 1994, Res. No. 5 (H.F. 1880) Journal of the House, pg. 5315 (Mar. 21, 1994) Journal of the Senate, pg. 7631 (Apr. 7, 1994) Journal of the House, pg. 7230 (Apr. 15, 1994)

2 It appears this resolution was approved by the governor on April 21, 1933, following final adjournment of the legislative session. As a result, a message was not received by the legislature in time to be entered into the House or Senate Journal.